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A bright, indirect location with a splash of morning or evening sun is the ideal setting for this species. Although direct sunlight is quite beneficial for a Poinsettia, avoid scorching the leaves with too much sun as this will lead to disfigured appearance. If you're worried about its location being too dark, if a newspaper can be read while having your back towards the light source, you're good to go.
The ideal location around the house must be above 15ºC (59ºF) and at least four metres away from an operating heat source. Never locate the plant in a windowsill that's either single-glazed or allows a draught to slip through its panes as this will lead to sudden leaf loss from the lowered temperature.
Moist soil is mandatory to ensure a good show of its festive colours throughout the Christmas period. Allow the top quarter of the soil to dry in between irrigations, using lukewarm water to avoid shocking the roots. There's no siding-factor when watering your Poinsettia; most people pour water directly into the soil, whereas others use the bottom-up method by submerging the plant in a pool of water for a short spell. As long as the plant never sits in soggy or standing water unnecessarily, it'll be content. Under-watering symptoms include curled or crispy leaves, wilted foliage, yellowing leaves and stunted growth. Only allow the majority of the soil to become dry once the plant is in its dormancy period after the festive period. The continuation of droughts will result in leaf loss and death in some cases. Over-watering symptoms include lower yellowing leaves, gradual lower leaf loss, stunted growth and wilting. Avoid the soil becoming overly saturated due to the species' susceptibility to root rot and other soilborne diseases. If this has happened to your specimen, increase the intensity light somewhat with fewer irrigations. Over-watering is commonly caused by too little light or heat or a lack of drying soil in between irrigations.
Average room humidity is enough to satisfy this plant, as long as you don't live in an overly-dry climate. Never situate it within a few metres of an operating radiator due to the enriched chance of browning leaf-tips. If you are indeed worried about dry air, create a humidity tray to provide a moist and stable environment for your plant, which will also have the added benefit of slowing the rates of drying soil!
During the autumn and winter, fertilise every four waters using either a 'Flowering Plant' or 'Poinsettia' feed to promote better flowers and foliage-colouring. From early spring until late summer, revert to a 'Houseplant' labelled fertiliser to help support the vital thirteen nutrients that are needed to grow new green luscious leaves.
The old wives' tale of placing a blanket over the foliage overnight from late August onwards is entirely accurate. Although this section will mention care that should be taken from late winter shortly after the Christmas period, other methods can be performed closer to Christmas.
Come mid-January, its flowers have finally elapsed, and the red tinges to the leaves and bracts will begin to fade slightly. Most will discard the plant at this point, but if you're a dedicated horticulturalist, you'll at least attempt to keep it until for a few months afterwards. The most critical way in which you can maintain a healthy, long-lasting specimen is by providing a dormancy period soon after Christmas. Although one may think that Poinsettia need a warm location all year round, they'd be wholly wrong. Poinsettia are put through hell and back throughout the year; being divided into stem cuttings in early summer, drowned in a potassium-based fertiliser in Autumn and having to endure artificial lighting with maximum darkness to assist the desired red bracts and foliage in time for Christmas.
With this in mind, surely you'd want to provide a warm location with regular waters to keep the plant happy? Wrong. A long-lasting Poinsettia will have a strong desire for a cooler setting with little fuss - after all, they have been put through the wars this past year! Along with dipping the temperature to around 12ºC (53ºF) until mid-spring, reduce irrigations considerably - once every ten days is sufficient to keep it hydrated. Provide a bright, indirect setting with a possible splash of the direct sun either in the morning or evening, to bunk up its strength.
The amount of darkness from August until mid-November will be the deciding factor of the leaves' colouration. Poinsettia will naturally flower during the springtime in its natural environment in Mexico, so inflicting a longer period of complete darkness will trick it into believing that winter has approached and is now on the back leg, thus needing to flower to stay in season. During late summer, place the Poinsettia in a room that won't be disturbed by artificial light throughout the night - this could even be a car driving past with its headlights on. Place a box or a blanket completely over the plant, allowing at least fifteen hours of darkness per day, with the offering a good amount of indirect light during the natural daylight hours. The ideal temperature for a Poinsettia during this period is around 15ºC (59ºF). Unfortunately, you'll have to repeat this daily until the bracts and foliage begin to redden, which is usually mid-autumn. Keep the amount of darkness the same until some of the leaves become entirely red (or whichever colour yours should be), increasing the amount of light, watering and temperature gradually. Never immediately place the plant in a location that is wholly different from its original site in the box, as this may lead to environmental shock.
Cutting the plant back in mid-spring is another excellent way to rejuvenate it in time for the upcoming winter. There are two methods of cutting back - hard pruning or top pruning. As mentioned above, Poinsettia are semi-deciduous, meaning that some of the leaves will naturally drop off over the course of the year. Once mid-spring comes along, and a few of its lower leaves have said goodbye, either cut the stems to 10cm stumps or trim the top of the stems that house only the red leaves, keeping the green foliage intact. If you're horticulture-savvy, you can set the pruning in moist soil to increase your stock, given that they are over the 10cm threshold in height. It's mandatory to use a clean pair of secateurs as any messy wounds could result in die-back or even certain diseases. Scroll down to the 'Propagation' section to learn about how to take Poinsettia cuttings.
N.B. - Although this section may sound mandatory, the plant can be left wholly intact and will still thrive over the year. ukhouseplants recommends using the top pruning method as not only will it promote a bushier appearance, but it will also push out new juvenile growth that's more likely to colour during the festive period.
Over-watering is the biggest issue with Poinsettia. Although moist soil is vital for long-lasting flowers and coloured foliage, avoid keeping the compost soggy for extended periods to prevent the chance of root rot. Allow the top quarter of the soil to become dry in between irrigations and always remember to use lukewarm water to avert shocking the tender root systems. Typical signs of over-watering include yellow lower leaves, leaf-loss and stunted growth. Please note that Poinsettia are semi-deciduous, meaning that it's normal for a small number of leaves to drop off over the year.
Under-watering is a lesser-common issue but is still a detriment to your Poinsettia. It's vital to allow the top quarter of the soil to dry out in between waters, but persistent droughts (especially if the plant receives direct light or is near to a radiator) will not be tolerated. Typical signs that you're a little neglectful with its hydration are yellowed leaves, stunted growth, exaggerated leaf-loss and crisping foliage. If this has occurred with your specimen, be sure to increase the frequency of irrigations and remove the affected areas with a clean pair of secateurs.
An improper location is a crucial element to an unhappy specimen. Not only will you have to factor in the amount of light the plant will receive, but you'll also need to consider other elements like humidity, heat-sources and the surrounding temperature. A brightly lit spot with a hint of either morning or evening sun (Before 10am OR after 3pm, but not all day) for around an hour is ideal. Do not place a Poinsettia within four metres of an operating radiator or fireplace as this will immediately lead to leaf curling and crispy foliage. Sudden lower leaf loss could be the result of too low temperatures, so single glazed windows or locations with a slight draught must be avoided, also.
Too little light will have similar effects to over-watering but without the collapsed stem. Its lower leaves will begin to yellow and drop off in quick succession, leaving you with red foliage and an unhappy plant. If you're scared that the location is too dark for the Poinsettia, if a newspaper can be read (when facing away from the light), you're good to go. If this has occurred with your specimen, improve the amount of light fractionally, keeping in mind the increased chance of environmental shock (when two locations offer too different growing conditions) and sun-scorch.
Too much sunlight will lead to sun-scorch, with typical signs including browning or crispy leaves, dry leaf-edges, curled leaves or little growth. Although too low light will cause over-watering issues, too much sunlight will also negatively affect the plant, in the likes of dehydration. A location that offers a splash of direct sunlight either in the morning or evening will bring the optimum growth for the Poinsettia.
A lack of blooms and colourful leaves in the following Christmas period is due to the low quality of its dormancy, served at the start of the same year. Poinsettia will naturally go through the colourful process in the spring to summer months but can be 'tricked' when its ambient temperature and watering frequency are dropped slightly. This will not only slow juvenile growth, but it'll also force the specimen to respond to this change by developing flower buds. Scroll up to 'Dormancy Care' for more information!
There are around one hundred different varieties of Poinsettia, with the original species originating from several regions in Mexico. The genus was first described back in the early 19th century by Johann Klotzsch and Carl Ludwig Willdenow, honouring the First American Minister to Mexico, Joel Poinsett, who had a keen interest in the plants. Its scientific name, Euphorbia pulcherrima, honours the Ancient Greek physician, Euphorbus, whereas the latter word can be translated from Latin to mean 'very beautiful'.
15° - 25°C (59° - 78°F).
H1a - can be grown outdoors in summer in a sheltered location, but is fine to remain indoors. If you decide to bring this houseplant outdoors, do not allow it to endure more than an hour or two of direct sunlight a day as this will burn the leaves. The temperature can be reduced to 12°C (59°F) during the spring months whilst the plant is serving its dormancy. Regularly keep an eye out for pests and do not allow temperatures to dip below 15°C (59°C) during the flowering period as irreversible damage may occur in the likes of sudden leaf loss.
Up to 1.5m in height and 1m in width. The ultimate height will take between 8 - 12 years to achieve.
Remove yellow or dying leaves, and plant debris to encourage better-growing conditions. While pruning, always use clean utensils or shears to reduce the chance of bacterial and fungal diseases. Never cut through yellowed tissue as this may cause further damage in the likes of diseases or bacterial infections. Remember to make clean incisions as too-damaged wounds may shock the plant, causing weakened growth and a decline in health.
Via Seed or Stem Cuttings.
Stem Cuttings (Easy) - Using a clean pair of scissors, cut a 10cm (4 - 5 inches) section off the stem's terminal. Be sure to use a fresh, damage or pest-free piece as unhealthy divisions are more likely to fail. Remove the older half of the leaves, so that the stem's lower portion is bare, to speed the process of root development. Purchase a 'Cactus & Succulent' compost and vertically push the cutting's base into the soil, avoiding the risk of covering the actual foliage with soil. Situate the cutting in a bright, indirect setting with temperatures above 18°C (64°F). As the roots will develop first, remove the bag and treat it as an adult specimen once there are signs of new foliar development.
Poinsettia will naturally flower in spring in their natural habitat, completely missing the Christmas period by a few months. If you'd like to get your specimen to bloom with red bracts during the festive period, introduce a photoperiodic schedule from late summer onwards. Scroll up to the section labelled 'Dormancy Care' for more information. Their flowers are relatively uninspiring, arranged in small clusters at the stem terminals that can last up to several weeks, sporting a yellow tinge.
While choosing a Poinsettia at a shop, choose those that still has its buds un-opened. Those with spent flowers will begin to look a little worse for wear, due to the Poinsettia doing its job in terms of attempted reproduction. The red bracts will begin to fade shortly after.
Repot every two years in the spring, using a 'Houseplant' labelled potting mix and the next sized pot with adequate drainage. Hydrate the plant 24hrs before tinkering with the roots to prevent the risk of transplant shock. For those situated in a darker location, introduce an extra amount of perlite and grit into the deeper portion of the pot to downplay over-watering risks. Click on this link for a detailed step-by-step guide on transplantation, or via this link to learn about repotting with root rot.
Book a 1-to-1 video call with Joe Bagley if you'd like a personal guide to repotting your houseplant. This will include recommending the right branded-compost and pot size, followed by a live video call whilst you transplant the specimen for step-by-step guidance and answer any further questions!
Keep an eye out for mealybugs, aphids, spider mites, scale, fungus gnats, blackfly, vine weevils & root mealybugs that'll locate themselves in the cubbyholes and undersides of the leaves, with the exception of the latter two in the soil. Common diseases associated with Poinsettia are root rot, leaf-spot disease, botrytis, powdery mildew & southern blight - click here to learn more about these issues.
Like most Euphorbia, the Poinsettia is considered poisonous if digested by pets and humans. When high quantities are eaten, it'll result in vomiting, nausea and a loss of appetite. The white sap that is secreted when damaged is also toxic, potentially causing skin or eye irritant to sensitive individuals.
Shortly before and after the Christmas period. Specimens are likely to be found in most garden centres and supermarkets across the world. Choose the healthiest example that sport no signs of stress in the likes of yellowing leaves and limp growth. Never buy a Poinsettia that is sold in temperatures lower than 15°C (59°F) as the cold will shock them to premature death.
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